System optimisation in Production:
Lowering the chiller water supply temperature by 1°C decreases the efficiency by 4%.
A lower chiller return (inlet) temperature can impact the COP significantly, reducing it by up to 15%.
In cooling systems, the “fouling factor” (dirt deposit) can effect chiller efficiency by up to 5% and pressure drop by up to 10%.
Overflow can reduce the condensing period by up to 20% thereby significantly impacting condensing boiler efficiency.
1 mm of scale deposit leads to boiler energy overconsumption of up to 9%.
System optimisation in Distribution:
In cooling systems, electrical pumping costs (constant flow distribution) represent 7% to 17% of the total cooling energy consumption.
When comparing a non balanced with a balanced system, electrical pumping cost can be reduced by 40%.
Increasing the total pump head to compensate for an underflow of 20% to some terminal units, creates an increase of 95% in the overall electrical pump consumption for the system.
A well-balanced heating or cooling system can provide energy savings of up to 35%.
Increasing water temperature by 1°C results in 3% higher pipe heat losses.
Due to corrosion and dirt deposit in pipes, electrical pumping costs increase by up to 35% during the first working years of a heating or cooling system.
System optimisation in Dissipation:
In heating systems, the room temperature being 1°C too high costs 6% to 11% of the annual plant energy consumption.
In cooling systems, the room temperature being 1°C too low costs 12% to 18% of the annual cooling plant energy consumption.
Interactive On-Off control systems create an over consumption of up to 7%.
Combining centralised set-back programmes with local set-back devices enables energy savings of up to 20%.
Each additional hour of start up time, starting earlier than necessary, costs 1,25% more of total heating energy consumption.
Compared to manual valves, accurate thermostatic radiator valves provide energy savings of up to 15%.
Air build-up in radiators can dramatically reduce the power output of a unit by up to 80%.
Replacing old thermostatic heads (1988 or before) with modern ones, can achieve energy savings of up to 7%.
Installing individual room temperature control for under floor heating systems can provide energy savings of up to 20%.