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In domestic hot water distribution, temperature of water in the pipes drops significantly when consumption is low or zero. As a result, people get disappointed to wait so long time to obtain hot water when required. Moreover, below 55°C, the bacteria (Legionella) proliferate dangerously.
If the distribution is well balanced, a wrong estimation of the total flow does not seem dramatic. If the flow is reduced by 50%, and for a supply water temperature of 60°C, the most unfavoured user will have 51°C instead of 55°C. In this case however, the risk of proliferation of legionella increases.
Hereafter, in the examples, we will consider the following hypothesis: ts = 60°C, tr = 55°C and P = 10 W/metre. Consequently: